Upper limb vasculature

Upper limb superficial veins Superficial veins of the upper limb include the basilic and cephalic veins. Both arise from the dorsal venous arch which are an arch of veins on the back of the hand that drain blood from the hand and fingers. The cephalic vein begins at the dorsolateral (radial) hand, crossing the anatomical snuffbox to run up the anterolateral upper limb before turning … Continue reading Upper limb vasculature


The issue of consent is based on the principle of patient autonomy (Hope et al, 2003). Informed consent is a way of actualising the notion of negative liberty (see autonomy) by protecting the patient against unwanted interference from the doctor (e.g. medical paternalism). Ethical considerations Lidz et al (1984) have analysed informed consent using three principal components and two subsidiary components. The three principal components … Continue reading Consent

Rossian ethics

W. D. Ross was a deontological ethicist who introduced the idea of “prima facie duties”. Unlike Kantian and utilitarian ethics, Ross believed that his ethical framework better captured the morally grey situations which the everyday man deals with. Prima facie duties Prima facie duties are those actions that are fundamental and self-evident. Ross proposed seven including: fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and non-maleficence. This … Continue reading Rossian ethics

Kantian ethics

Immanuel Kant was a ethicist who developed an influential deontological ethical framework known as Kantian ethics. Central to Kantian ethics is the “categorical imperative”. The categorical imperative is based on three main formulations: Universality: “Act only on that maxim which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”. An action is moral if it can be applied equally to … Continue reading Kantian ethics


Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy so birth does not result. Miscarriages can be considered spontaneous abortions. Debate on intentional abortion is often polarised. On one end, there are ‘pro-choice’ individuals who believe a woman’s right over their own body overrides the right for the foetus to live. On the other end is ‘pro-life’ which considers it wrong to kill a human being, and … Continue reading Abortion